The concentration of several biochemical and hematological biomarkers is strongly influenced by a number of preanalytical variables. Several lines of evidence attest that short, middle, and long-term exercise, as well as the relative intensity of physical effort (from mild to strenuous), may influence a broad array of laboratory variables. The amount of extracellular release and clearance from blood of most of these biomarkers is markedly influenced by the biological characteristics of the molecule(s), level of training, type, intensity and duration of exercise, and time of recovery after training. It is hence noteworthy that test results that fall outside the conventional reference ranges in athletes not only may reflect the presence of a given disease, but may frequently mirror an adaptation to regular training or changes that have occurred during and/or following strenuous exercise, and which should be clearly acknowledged to prevent misinterpretation of laboratory data. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an update about the most significant changes of some biochemical and hematological biomarkers in response to physical exercise, for appropriate interpretation of these changes in the context of physically active subjects.
Alex's notes: This review should be saved to be shown to the doctors of us Super Humans upon lab testing. Exercise is notorious for changing plasma volume, metabolism, and markers of cellular damage. It is no surprise that everything from skeletal muscle, liver, and cardiac damage biomarkers to all things blood to kidney function, inflammation, hormones, and even vitamin and mineral metabolism are effected both in the short- and the long-term by exercise. To give you a brief anacdotal account of yours truly, the below picture is a screenshot of my liver enzyme scores the day after a heavy lifting session. As you can clearly see, my doctor was concerned, but after discussing the results with Adel, I tried explaining that exercise elevates ALT and AST. No concern needed.