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A comparison of the nutrient content of uncooked and cooked lean from New Zealand beef and lamb

Abstract: The composition in terms of proximate analysis, cholesterol, vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids of the lean tissue of 17 beef cuts and 18 lamb cuts was determined on within-cut composite samples (each containing lean tissue from at least 7 animals), following the knife-separation of raw and cooked cuts into lean, fat, and bone. Composite lean samples for 4 beef cuts and 4 lamb cuts were also analysed for amino-acid composition. For analysis, different cuts were the experimental unit as individual animal data were not available. The composition of lean from beef and lamb was shown to be highly desirable with a high nutrient density (mg/kJ) for many nutrients. Although lean from beef and lamb were very similar in many respects, several significant differences were detected. Changes in composition with cooking were largely eliminated when considered on a dry-matter basis, but proportions of the n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with cooking (P < 0.05). The amino acid composition was similar for lean from beef and lamb but showed small deviations from recommended patterns for human nutrition with branched chain amino acids being limiting.

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Alex’s Notes: I don’t have much to say about this study. I found it interesting as I am a huge fan of ruminant meats, with beef being the most commonly consumed but lamb being my favorite. This study took 17 cuts of beef and 18 cuts of lamb with the goal of reporting the nutrient composition for both raw and cooked meats. More importantly, in my opinion, was that the beef and lamb cuts came from animals that were completely pasture-finished, which gives a more “natural” look at the meat composition than the conventional feed-lot data from the USDA.

To keep things simple, I summarized the findings into the below tables.

   

Beef

Lamb

       

Number of samples

Ckd

17

18

Raw

17

18

Water %

Ckd

61.12 ± 4.27

63.36 ± 4.98

Raw

72.16 ± 1.79

72.69 ± 1.80

Energy (kJ/100 g)

Ckd

824.0 ± 128.5

815.0 ± 161.7

Raw

580.1 ± 82.2

589.7 ± 94.5

Protein %

Ckd

30.34 ± 2.72

27.28 ± 3.15

Raw

21.10 ± 0.76

20.61 ± 0.87

Fat %

Ckd

8.48 ± 3.18

9.61 ± 3.83

Raw

6.09 ± 2.34

6.56 ± 2.64

Ash %

Ckd

1.05 ± 0.31

1.13 ± 0.19

Raw

0.96 ± 0.06

1.05 ± 0.12

Cholesterol (mg/100 g)

Ckd

82.6 ± 10.6

87.5 ± 16.4

Raw

54.6 ± 3.5

63.5 ± 3.9

Vitamin

 

Beef

Lamb

       

Vitamin B1 (mg/100 g) [Thiamine]

Ckd

0.038 ± 0.019

0.069 ± 0.043

Raw

0.047 ± 0.012

0.095 ± 0.038

Vitamin B2 (mg/100 g) [Riboflavin]

Ckd

0.131 ± 0.039

0.195 ± 0.045

Raw

0.097 ± 0.025

0.162 ± 0.027

Vitamin B3 (mg/100 g) [Niacin]

Ckd

3.25 ± 1.12

5.14 ± 1.71

Raw

3.49 ± 0.69

5.13 ± 0.88

Vitamin B5 (mg/100 g) [Pantothenic acid]

Ckd

0.394 ± 0.208

0.580 ± 0.254

Raw

0.393 ± 0.180

0.504 ± 0.177

Vitamin B6 (mg/100 g) [Pyridoxine]

Ckd

0.214 ± 0.081

0.164 ± 0.070

Raw

0.267 ± 0.058

0.154 ± 0.049

Vitamin B12 (μg/100 g) [Cyanocobalamin]

Ckd

1.52 ± 0.38

1.77 ± 0.48

Raw

1.69 ± 0.51

1.85 ± 0.52

Vitamin A (μg/100 g) [Retinol]

Ckd

12.1 ± 3.0

4.50 ± 2.65

Raw

9.38 ± 2.80

4.69 ± 2.27

Vitamin D3 (μg/100 g) [Cholecalciferol]

Ckd

0.216 ± 0.078

0.053 ± 0.045

Raw

0.146 ± 0.053

0.043 ± 0.041

25-OH vitamin D3 (μg/100 g)

Ckd

0.169 ± 0.033

0.127 ± 0.052

Raw

0.131 ± 0.041

0.128 ± 0.039

Vitamin E (mg/100 g) [alpha-tocopherol]

Ckd

0.708 ± 0.217

0.385 ± 0.118

Raw

0.451 ± 0.128

0.287 ± 0.079

Mineral

 

Beef

Lamb

       

Calcium (mg/100 g)

Ckd

6.06 ± 3.09

16.1 ± 15.5

Raw

4.67 ± 2.79

9.66 ± 6.76

Copper (mg/100 g)

Ckd

0.106 ± 0.040

0.138 ± 0.023

Raw

0.077 ± 0.029

0.105 ± 0.020

Iodine (μg/100 g)

Ckd

1.40 ± 0.71

1.73 ± 0.70

Raw

1.12 ± 0.83

1.54 ± 0.66

Iron (mg/100 g)

Ckd

2.56 ± 0.55

1.79 ± 0.32

Raw

1.91 ± 0.28

1.35 ± 0.21

Magnesium (mg/100 g)

Ckd

21.2 ± 4.5

23.5 ± 3.7

Raw

20.7 ± 1.7

22.2 ± 2.3

Manganese (μg/100 g)

Ckd

11.97 ± 3.80

10.72 ± 1.88

Raw

8.72 ± 2.18

9.15 ± 1.68

Phosphorus (mg/100 g)

Ckd

182 ± 44

195 ± 36

Raw

181 ± 14

187 ± 17

Potassium (mg/100 g)

Ckd

266 ± 109

303 ± 76

Raw

325 ± 22

328 ± 26

Selenium (μg/100 g)

Ckd

3.17 ± 1.68

6.52 ± 2.21

Raw

2.20 ± 1.17

4.45 ± 1.28

Sodium (mg/100 g)

Ckd

39.8 ± 11.2

68.3 ± 14.3

Raw

50.4 ± 8.1

71.8 ± 13.7

Zinc (mg/100 g)

Ckd

5.16 ± 1.19

4.15 ± 1.32

Raw

3.69 ± 0.84

3.02 ± 0.59

 

Item

 

Beef

Lamb

       

Total FA (g/100 g)

Ckd

6.28 ± 2.49

6.50 ± 2.60

Raw

4.67 ± 1.94

4.65 ± 1.74

SFA (g/100 g)

Ckd

2.89 ± 1.15

3.48 ± 1.51

Raw

2.17 ± 0.91

2.45 ± 1.60

MUFA (g/100 g)

Ckd

3.03 ± 1.35

2.51 ± 0.98

Raw

2.25 ± 1.04

1.82 ± 0.63

PUFA (g/100 g)

Ckd

0.359 ± 0.080

0.507 ± 0.132

Raw

0.249 ± 0.056

0.376 ± 0.086

n-6 PUFA (g/100 g)

Ckd

0.180 ± 0.039

0.191 ± 0.040

Raw

0.123 ± 0.024

0.150 ± 0.035

n-3 PUFA (g/100 g)

Ckd

0.134 ± 0.025

0.186 ± 0.042

Raw

0.093 ± 0.017

0.144 ± 0.032

Linoleic acid (C18:2 n6) (g/100 g)

Ckd

0.116 ± 0.027

0.156 ± 0.035

Raw

0.082 ± 0.020

0.121 ± 0.027

Linolenic acid (C18:3 n3) (g/100 g)

Ckd

0.073 ± 0.016

0.128 ± 0.039

Raw

0.052 ± 0.013

0.096 ± 0.025

n-6/n-3

Ckd

1.34 ± 0.14

1.03 ± 0.12

Raw

1.33 ± 0.15

1.04 ± 0.11

LCn3FA (g/100 g)

Ckd

0.061 ± 0.014

0.059 ± 0.014

Raw

0.041 ± 0.009

0.048 ± 0.015

EPA + DHA (g/100 g)

Ckd

0.026 ± 0.008

0.033 ± 0.012

Raw

0.018 ± 0.005

0.029 ± 0.013

CLA (c9-t11)

Ckd

0.045 ± 0.030

0.130 ± 0.061

Raw

0.033 ± 0.024

0.082 ± 0.044

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